Consumer Electronics Quality Tests and Certifications

product groups and tests

Dear Visitor,

AV T.O.P. Messtechnik is an independent and ISO 9001:2008-certified measurement laboratory for consumer electronics.
Founded in 1999, the firm currently has some 10 employees. We test and measure more than 500 devices per year and work primarily for publishers and as consultants to commerce and industry clients.
Our measurements and test results serve as the basis for device reviews in online and print magazines, as a product-optimization tool in industry, and as an aid in buying decisions for discount superstores and retail chains.
We work closely with manufacturers in the measurement-technology sector (for example, Rohde & Schwarz) and regularly introduce novel measurement processes in order to guarantee our customers top-quality, up-to-date, and market-relevant results.
The following list gives examples of the main product categories and test criteria and is intended to offer an insight into the possibilities for testing consumer-electronics devices.
I am delighted that you are considering engaging our services, and hope that we can convince you of our expertise.


Florian Friedrich,
CEO

3D Monitors and 3D Televisions

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Brightness (cd/m²) for 2D operation, 2D operation with glasses, and 3D operation

· On/Off contrast ratio (xx:1) for 2D operation, 2D operation with glasses, and 3D operation

· Color temperature (K) for 2D operation, 2D operation with glasses, and 3D operation

· Detail contrast (%)

· Resolution

· Visual test

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Audio Cables

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Frequency response deviation 20 Hz – 100 kHz (dB) for analog audio cables

· Level drop (mV/m) for analog audio cables

· Distortion (THD+N, %) for analog audio cables

· Jitter (% UI) for digital audio cables

· Listening test for analog and digital audio cables including HDMI

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Car Radios / In-Car HiFi

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Frequency response deviation 20 Hz – 20 kHz (dB) for CD or MP3 playback

· Tuner sensitivity (dB µV) for analog tuners

· Tuner audio fidelity (dB) max. level deviation 20 Hz – 20 kHz, at 60 dBµV input level

· Noise (dB SNR) at 75 kHz dev.

· Channel separation (dBr) L/R at 1 kHz and 75 kHz dev.

· Distortion (%THD+N) at 1 kHz L+R, 75 kHz dev.

· Input sensitivity (at 46 dB SNR)

· Stereo/Mono switching threshold (1 kHz < 26 dBr channel separation)

· RDS behavior in a practical test

· Selectivity

· Image frequencies

· Listening test

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

AV Receivers

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

General

· Power consumption (watts) when switched off, when in standby, and with the amplifier section active

· Maximum stereo output power (watts) at 8 Ω/6 Ω/ 4 Ω

· Maximum output power of all channels simultaneously (watts) at 8 Ω/6 Ω/ 4 Ω

· Signal-to-noise ratio (dBr) based on 5 watts, 8 Ω Distortion (THD+N)

· Impulse response

· Noise suppression

· Power-amp protection

Radio Reception (Tuner)

· Tuner sensitivity

· Distortion

· Pilot-signal suppression

· Signal-to-noise ratio

· Practical test of RDS functions

Video Section

· Video frequency response

· Analog video: luminance noise

· Analog video: chrominance noise AM

· Analog video: chrominance noise PM

· Crosstalk video -> audio without video

· Crosstalk video -> audio with video

· Crosstalk audio -> video

· HDMI: Practical test in operation with DVD player 576/50i (two monitors)

· HDMI: Practical test in operation with Blu-ray player 720/60p (two monitors)

· HDMI: Practical test in operation with Blu-ray player 1080/24p (two monitors)

· HDMI: Practical test in operation with long HDMI cable (12 meters), highest interference-free resolution

· HDMI video resolution (PAL to 1080)

· Quality of digital conversion YUV-576i -> HDMI-576i

· Quality of scaling/de-interlacing YUV-576i -> HDMI-576p/1080i/1080p

· Noteworthy feature: Relays HDMI signal when in standby mode

· Quality of conversion analog YUV -> HDMI 576p

· Quality of conversion analog YUV -> HDMI 1080i

· Quality of conversion analog YUV -> HDMI 720pi

Features

· Configuration options for speakers and bass management

· Effectiveness of automatic calibration

· Connections

Listening Test

· Detailed listening tests with several trained listeners, using a switching unit (A/B comparison) in an optimized listening room

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Batteries

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Nominal capacity (manufacturer specification)

· Actual capacity

· Charging curve

· Discharging curve

· Internal resistance after 1 hour of discharging

· Internal resistance after 90% of discharging time

· Price/performance (mAh per euro)

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Blu-ray Players/Recorders

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

General

· Start-up time from standby

· Maximum operating noise (dB/sone)

· Read time Blu-ray / DVD

· Navigation speed Blu-ray / DVD

HDMI Output

· Picture resolution (frequency response deviation or highest cutoff frequency in %)

· RGB color decoding (deviations in % or digits)

· Image dynamics (% of standard range)

· Blacker-than-black (BTB) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Whiter-than-white (WTW) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Video level accuracy (deviation in % or digits)

· Overscan at 1080i/1080p (%)

· Visual test

Analog Audio Output

· Frequency-response deviation (dB)

· Analog audio: Signal-to-noise ratio (dBr S/N)

· Analog audio: Channel separation (dBr)

· Analog audio: Distortion (% THD+N)

· Listening test (analog+digital)

Recording Function

· Tuner tests as with set-top boxes

· Encoder tests (dynamic video-frequency response) as with DVD recorders

Disk Drive

· Faults due to CD surface errors (mm)

· Faults due to CD information-track errors

· Faults due to scratches on DVD

· Faults due to black dots on DVD

· Faults due to fingerprints on DVD

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

DVD/Blu-ray Home-Theater Systems

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

DVD Players / Blu-ray Players

… as per tests of DVD/Blu-ray players

Amplifiers

… as per tests of amplifiers / AV receivers

Loudspeakers

… as per loudspeaker tests

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

DVD Players / Recorders

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Features

· Various test criteria, including functions for time-shift TV viewing, recording timers, and support for special formats for discs and multimedia files.

HDMI Output

· Video resolution (frequency response deviation or highest cutoff frequency in %)

· RGB color decoding (deviations in % or digits)

· Image dynamics (% of standard range)

· Blacker-than-black (BTB) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Whiter-than-white (WTW) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Video level accuracy (deviation in % or digits)

· Overscan at 1080i/1080p (%)

· Visual test

Analog Video Connections (recording and playback on recorders)

· Video frequency response

· Picture noise (contrast noise and color noise)

· Distortion of the image signal (2T impulse)

· Level accuracy of sync signals

· Grayscale linearity

· Color neutrality (level and phase)

· Video timing (sync duration, field duration, field jitter, …)

· Video-encoding quality (on DVD recorders)

· Measurements on moving video-frequency responses at different speeds

· Visual tests with critical scenes

Audio Outputs (analog+digital)

· Jitter (ns, %UI): Digital-audio quality

· Frequency-response deviation (dB)

· Audio fidelity

· Signal-to-noise ratio (dBr S/N)

· Channel separation (dBr)

· Distortion (% THD+N)

· Listening test

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Televisions (LCD TV, Plasma TV, OLED TV)

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Video Processing

· Subjective check of analog and digital SDTV and HDTV video inputs: composite, S-Video (Y/C), RGB (Scart-RGB, 15k-RGB), YUV (YpbPr-576i/-576p/-720p/-1080i), BNC, VGA, DVI, HDMI

· Resolution: Horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, and color resolution on different video inputs

· Scaling and filtering

· Y/C delay, PbPr/CbCr delay

· De-interlacing: Film mode SDTV & HDTV, TV mode (antialiasing) SDTV & HDTV

· Overscan: Checking picture cropping in percent or pixels

· Pixel mapping: Checking for exact scaling of 720p/1080i/p sources on 720p/1080i/p monitors

· Geometry: Checking correct reproduction. Do all picture formats work properly? Are all important picture formats present?

· PC signals: Reproduction quality of VESA resolutions / VESA modes via VGA, DVI, HDMI

· AV sync: Video/audio delay, absolute (audio output on video source device) and relative (via audio output or speakers on TV)

· 24p processing: Reproduction quality of native 24p Blu-ray signals. Checking native motion phase (microjudder, 3:2-pulldown judder), checking inverse telecine feature (24p reproduction with 60Hz playback from film-based source material)

· Motion compensation: Lack of artifacts and quality of motion-smoothing in motion-compensation technologies

· Motion depiction: Visual inspection of motion clarity of different video signals (film material, TV material, SDTV, HDTV) with and without motion-compensation technologies, checking for lack of artifacts (smudging, double or multiple edges, shadow formation, contrast loss, loss of color intensity), and natural motion phase

· Reaction time: Determination of switching time (gray to gray), rise time (black to white), and fall time (white to black) with different brightness jumps and frame rates

· General depiction quality: Large-area flicker, line flicker, moiré formation, visual inspection of grading ability in color gradients (color depth, dithering), differentiation (standard black, standard white, blacker than black, whiter than white), uniformity, viewing-angle dependence

Light and Contrast Measurements

· Maximum luminance: Measurement in fl or cd/m², determination of average full-screen brightness, either 9 (ANSI) or 13 measurement areas (EBU 3325) and peak white (25% area, 1% area)

· Uniformity: Luminance deviation from black, gray, or white across the screen area, determined using either 9 or 13 measurement areas

· Contrast: Determined using On/Off method, in-picture method (various procedures) and according to ANSI (16-square chessboard)

· Stability / Display load: Determination of maximum luminance as a function of the relative area of the reference white (dimming technologies with LCD, current limiting with PDP)

· Electro-optical transfer curve (gamma): Determination of gamma characteristic and deviation from an ideal curve with any desired reference value (e.g., 1.8 … 2.8)

· Reflectance factor: Comparison of the luminance of a screen’s surface with that of a reference white; used for calculating a screen’s luminance factor and bright-room contrast ratio

· Reflectance: Measurement of a display’s antireflective properties; can be determined for different types of reflection (directed/diffuse)

· Viewing-angle dependence / goniometric measurements: Off-axis measurement of brightness, contrast, gamma, and color reproduction at different horizontal angles

Color Measurements

· Gamut: Measurement of a display’s color gamut, checking for deviations from different common gamuts (EBU, Rec BT.709, SMPTE C RGB, sRGB, Adobe RGB…)

· Color decoding: Measurement of RGB color levels, checking deviation from common color matrices (ITU BT.601/709)

· Gray tracking: Variation of color temperature and color coordinates across the brightness scale

· Depiction of mixed colors: Checking color-coordinate deviation in a three-dimensional color space (Y, x, y) using 15 reference color samples according to EBU Tech 3325

· Spectrum: Analysis of the wavelength composition of the monitor’s light source

· Viewing-angle dependent color measurements

3D Measurements

· Determination of color- and light-related characteristics: Brightness, color fidelity, contrast

· Quality of the 2D-to-3D conversion: Plausibility of the spatial impression; which video sources can be converted to 3D; subjective description of the wearing comfort of any required glasses; viewing comfort in 3D mode

Power Consumption and Energy

· Power consumption: Active power consumption (watts) in different states of operation (Picture settings and choice of test pattern affect the power consumption.)

· Idle power

· Energy efficiency: Relative energy consumption in terms of luminance and image area (cd/W)

· Waste heat: Thermal imaging; determination of peak temperature and temperature distribution

· Standby power consumption: Active power consumption in watts

· Estimated cost: Estimation of annual energy costs for realistic usage (standard “out of the box” settings, 3.5h of daily use, standby mode for remaining time, based on average electricity costs for residential customers)

Audio Measurements

· Headphone output: Audio frequency response, noise, maximum voltage level / THD, subjective impression of sound

· Digital audio output: Jitter

· AV sync: Video/audio delay, absolute (audio output on video source device) and relative (via audio output on TV)

· Loudspeakers: Distortion, maximum output volume, subjective impression of sound

· Operating noise: Determination of operating noise in dB(A) and sones

Operation / Usability

· User manual: Completeness of information, comprehensibility, clarity, number of languages, and if necessary, evaluation according to the DIN EN 62079 standard for usability tests

· Remote control: Intuitive grouping and labeling of buttons, button trigger pressure, illumination, power supply, feel (weight/center of gravity, dimensions, grip)

· Menu: Reaction time, construction/clarity, graphic design, number of languages, feedback on properties of incoming TV/video signals

· Ease of use: Are all-important functions for easy viewing present and easy to control? For example: channel list, channel presorting, channel-editing functions, back button

· Accessibility and labeling of connections

Functionality

· Number and type of video inputs

· Number and type of TV tuners (analog, DVB-T, DVB-C, DVB-S, DVB-S2, CI+, HD+)

· Picture controls: Storage behavior, default setting, number and type of picture parameters

· Additional multimedia features: DLNA streaming, USB media player, Internet functions

· Extent of accessories

Mechanical Quality

· Sensitivity of display and casing to scratching

· Sturdiness of stand

· Build quality of chassis: Deburring, sharp edges, protruding parts

Tuner

…as per set-top boxes

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Cell Phones

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Display

· Maximum display brightness / legibility in sunlight

· Resolution

· Color neutrality

· Brightness distribution

· Contrast (2:2 ANSI and On/Off)

· Viewing-angle dependence

· Reflections

Photo and Video Quality

· Camera resolution

· Camera focal lengths (optical, digital, etc.)

· Geometric distortions

· Color reproduction with minimal lighting

· Viewing test, still life in artificial light

· Viewing test, still life in daylight

· Shutter delay

Audio Quality of Built-In Speakers

· Audio frequency response

· Distortion (THD+N)

· Sound quality via audio output

· Audio frequency response

· THD+N

· SNR

Microphone

· Speech recording from artificial mouth

· Sensitivity to wind

· Audio frequency response

· Distortion (THD+N) and overload margin

· Noise suppression / noise canceling

· Hands-free equipment: Measured with a microphone at a 1m distance

Radio Reception / Tuner

…as per other devices with tuners, e.g., AV receivers

Music Playback

…as per tests for MP3 players

Features

…diverse test criteria, very detailed

Operation

…diverse test criteria, very detailed

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Headsets

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Headphones

…as per headphone tests

Microphone

· Speech recording from artificial mouth

· Sound (listening test)

· Sensitivity to wind

· Audio frequency response

· Input sensitivity

· Internal resistance

· Distortion (THD+N) and overload margin

· Noise suppression / noise canceling

· Suppression of sibilants and plosives

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

iPod Docking Stations

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Sound

… as per loudspeaker tests

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

IPTV Set-Top Boxes

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Picture Quality

…as per set-top boxes

Audio Quality

…as per set-top boxes

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Headphones

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Sound (listening test)

· Audio fidelity (dB): Frequency-response deviation

· Input sensitivity (mV): Voltage for 94dB SPL sound pressure

· Maximum volume (dB SPL): Noise in accordance with IEC 60268-1

· Maximum undistorted volume (dB SPL): With a sine wave

· Impedance curve: Diagram allowing viewer to read off the minimum and maximum impedance

· Distortion (%): THD across a range of frequencies or levels

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Loudspeakers (individual speakers and 5.1 sets)

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Audio fidelity (dB): Frequency-response deviation

· Reverberation time: Bass, mid, treble

· Maximum undistorted volume (dB SPL)

· Noise from speakers (sones or dB (A) SPL): With active speakers

· Distortion (%): THD

· Impedance deviations (Ω or %) THD

· Omnidirectional sound distribution / Dispersion behavior (diagram): Frequency response across different horizontal and vertical angles

· Sensitivity (dB SPL): at 1W/m

· Lower cutoff frequency

· Listening test: Using identical amplifiers and a switching unit in an acoustically optimized listening room

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Media Center PCs

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Media Receivers / DLNA Clients

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Mini HiFi Systems

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Monitors

Similar to TVs; tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

MP3 Players

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

General/Features

· Battery life in different modes

· Internal storage, option to increase storage space

· Controlling the player via touch-sensitive controls

· Built-in clock

· Stopwatch

· Built-in microphone

· Built-in speakers

· Favorites management

· Option to create playlists

· Automatic shutdown

· Integration as a system drive

· Transfer of playable music without additional software

· Transfer of media files via media library in Windows Media Player

· Use as a portable storage device

· Keylock

· Built-in games

· Possibility to integrate own background logos

Scope of Functions

· Playback function (music files)

· Play and stop functions with pause (play/stop/pause)

· Skip

· Resume function, accurate to nearest second

· Fast-forward and rewind functions for all supported formats

· Status indicator (elapsed play time, remaining play time, …)

· Shuffle / random play

· Intro-scan function

· Repeat-play function

· Track programming for playback

· Search by track name

· Folder navigation

· Clear folder labeling

· Scrolling text used for longer file or folder names

· Allows direct deletion of tracks

· Variable playback speed (audio book function)

· Playback functions (image files)

· Slideshow

· Rotation of images clockwise and counterclockwise

· Reads and displays ExIf data

· Displays image resolution

· Internal direct scaling of images (no prescaling of images)

· Background music

· Allows direct deletion of tracks

· Playback functions (video files)

· Play and stop functions with pause (play/stop/pause)

· Skip

· Resume function, accurate to nearest second

· Allows manual setting of skip marks within the film

· Fast-forward and rewind functions for all supported formats

· Status indicator (elapsed play time, remaining play time, …)

· Folder navigation

· Full-screen display

· Allows direct deletion of tracks

Recording Functions

· Recording formats

· Recording quality (supported bit rates)

· Auto indexing when recording

· Audio level control

Sound Quality via Audio Output

· Audio fidelity (max. level deviation 20 Hz – 20 kHz)

· Maximum audio level

· Noise (SNR)

· Channel separation (L/R)

· Distortion (THD+N at 1 kHz)

· Listening test

Headphone Audio Quality

· Audio fidelity (dB): max. level deviation, artificial-head measurement

· Distortion (%): THD across frequency range at 94 dB

· Minimum impedance (Ω)

· Maximum impedance deviation 20 Hz – 20 kHz (Ω)

· Maximum headphone volume with the supplied player and with neutral or inactive equalizer (noise IEC 60268-1; EQ: off/neutral)

· Maximum sound pressure with the supplied player according to the DIN EN 50332 standard (dB SPL)

· Maximum undistorted headphone volume (dB SPL): at 1 kHz, 1% THD

· Listening test

Audio Quality via Headphone Output (loaded)

· Audio fidelity (dB): max. level deviation, 32-ohm load

· Noise, stereo (dB SNR): 32-ohm load

· Channel separation (dBr) L/R, 32-ohm load

· Distortion (% THD+N) 32-ohm load

· Listening test

Audio Quality via Digital Output

· Jitter (ns, %UI)

· Frequency response

File-Format Compatiblity

· MP3 (Fraunhofer) with supported bit rates kbit/s

· Quality and information content of MP3 menu

· Music formats: MP3-Pro, WMA, WAV, OGG, AAC, FLAC

· Picture formats: BMP, GIF, animated GIF, JPG, PNG

· Video formats: DivX, FLV (Flash video, e.g., Youtube), H.264 (Low Complexity Baseline Profile), MotionJPG, MOV, MP4, WMV, WMV(DRM), XviD

· Text formats: txt, doc, html

· Lyrics/subtitles: LRC, SRT, TXT

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Portable DVD/Blu-ray Players

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Portable Media Players (Video and Audio)

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Projectors (LCD, DLP, D-ILA, SXRD)

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Radio Cassette Recorders

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Set-Top Boxes (DVB-S/S2, DVB-C, DVB-T, and IPTV; also HDTV measurements)

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

General

· Start-up time from standby

· Maximum operating noise (dB/sone)

· Channel-switching times

· Power consumption in different modes

HDMI Output

· Video resolution (frequency response deviation or highest cutoff frequency in %)

· RGB color decoding (deviations in % or digits)

· Image dynamics (% of standard range)

· Blacker-than-black (BTB) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Whiter-than-white (WTW) reproduction (% of standard range)

· Video level accuracy (deviation in % or digits)

· Overscan at 1080i/1080p (%)

· Visual test

Analog Audio Output

· Frequency-response deviation (dB)

· Analog audio: Signal-to-noise ratio (dBr S/N)

· Analog audio: Channel separation (dBr)

· Analog audio: Distortion (% THD+N)

· Listening test (analog+digital)

Tuner

· Sensitivity: Minimum level for a good picture

· Behavior with signal interruptions

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Soundcards (PC)

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Audio Outputs (analog+digital)

· Converter linearity

· Jitter (ns, %UI): Digital-audio quality

· Frequency-response deviation (dB) Audio fidelity

· Signal-to-noise ratio (dBr S/N)

· Channel separation (dB)

· Distortion (% THD+N)

· Listening test

Audio Quality via Headphone Output (loaded)

· Audio fidelity (dB): max. level deviation, 32-ohm load

· Noise, stereo (dB SNR): 32-ohm load

· Channel separation (dB): L/R, 32-ohm load

· Distortion (% THD+N): 32-ohm load

· Listening test

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Subwoofers

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

· Audio fidelity (dB): Frequency-response deviation

· Reverberation time

· Maximum undistorted volume (dB SPL):

· Noise from speakers (sones or dB (A) SPL)

· Distortion (%): THD

· Upper and lower cutoff frequency

· Listening test: Using identical amplifiers and a switching unit in an acoustically optimized listening room

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Clock Radios

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Video Cables

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Video Cameras / Surveillance Cameras

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Picture Quality

· Color fidelity (color space, white point, gray tracking)

· Grayscale accuracy

· Brightness resolution (luminance)

· Color resolution (chrominance)

· ANSI contrast

· Maximum contrast ratio

· Maximum/average brightness

· Black level

· Uniformity of illumination

· Pixel-precise resolution

· Image brightness at 60° viewing angle

· Contrast ratio at 60° viewing angle

· Visual test: Reproduction of skin tones, different light conditions

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Video Processors

Tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Video Editing Cards (PC)

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

Quality of Video Inputs

…as per tests of DVD/Blu-ray recorders

Quality of Video Outputs

…as per tests of DVD/Blu-ray players

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.

 

Multi-Band Radios

For these products we can carry out the following tests, among others:

General

· Standby power consumption

· Standby power consumption with active timer / LCD backlight

· Operating power consumption

· Stereo signal processing

· Battery type / can run on mains power

· Time-zone map on casing

Audio Quality via Headphone Output (unloaded)

· Audio fidelity (max. level deviation 20 Hz – 20 kHz)

· Maximum audio level (when used as line out)

· Noise (SNR)

· Channel separation (L/R)

· Distortion (THD+N at 1 kHz)

· Headphone audio quality

· Audio fidelity (max. level deviation, artificial-head measurement)

· Distortion, frequency-dependent (THD by frequency at 94 dB)

· Minimum impedance (20 Hz – 20 kHz)

· Maximum headphone volume with the supplied player (IEC 60268-1)

· Maximum undistorted headphone volume (1 kHz / 1% THD)

Headphone-Output Audio Quality

· Audio fidelity (dB): max. level deviation, 32-ohm load

· Noise, stereo (dB SNR): 32-ohm load

· Channel separation (dB): L/R, 32-ohm load

· Distortion (% THD+N): 32-ohm load

· Listening test

Loudspeaker Audio Quality

…as per other devices

Display Functions

· Illuminated display or glowing indicators (LED/ LCD)

· Night-light function

· Dimmable display or indicators

· Anti-reflective display

· Information clearly legible, also when viewed from the side

· Displays time setting of active alarms

· Displays the current reception frequency (digital)

· Display includes indicators for all other important functions

· Time projector

· Date and weekday display in German format

· Battery-status indicator

Tuner Functions

· Received frequency range VHF, SW, MW, LW

· Step width VHF, SW, MW, LW

· Signal-strength meter

· Preemphasis/Deemphasis switchable

· Single Side-Band (SSB) / Dual Conversion

· Narrow/Wide selector (ZF)

· Local/DX switch

· Number of programmable presets

· Automatic station search

· RDS function

· Mono/Stereo switch

· Direct frequency input

Tuner Audio Quality

· FM audio fidelity

· Channel separation (dB) at different input levels

· Distortion (%) at different input levels

· Signal-to-noise ratio (dB) at different input levels

· Pilot-signal attenuation (dB)

· Input sensitivity, stereo

· Stereo/Mono threshold

· Station detection in auto search process

Further tests and measurements by arrangement.